to bend a Thin pipe

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Hello,
I need to bend a very thin pipe (a heat pipe), it's about 19mm diameter
and 0.7 mm thick. The raduis of bending is 50 mm and a the inside of
the pipe has a precise geometry that cannot be deformed : There are
theet of 2mm high and 1mm wide all around the inside, with a 1mm gap
between two consecutive theet. It's an aluminium alloy. The pipe has to
keep continuous teeth for the capillarity and a constant gap between
the teeth. We must be able to clean it up really good if you put smthg
in it for bending, and we cannot put sand.
Excuse my english. Thanks for any answer.


Re: to bend a Thin pipe
snipped-for-privacy@gmail.com says...
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Cerrobend alloy, or water.

If water, freeze the water with liquid nitrogen before bending.

Do a test on a sample first, the expansion may crack the tubing at
that size.

Jim


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Re: to bend a Thin pipe
On 5 Dec 2005 08:24:42 -0800, with neither quill nor qualm, jim rozen

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Jim, you're the first person I've ever heard who has ever suggested
freezing metal (freezing the water freezes the metal) before bending
it. Can you explain how this would work? Most things tend to get VERY
brittle at freezing and sub-zero temps.

"Be the change you want to see in the world."  --Mahatma Gandhi
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Re: to bend a Thin pipe
Towards the end of the 'factory tour' here

http://www.zacharymusic.com/Zachary_Music/ZTR900Factory.htm

there is reference to bending brass tubing after filling with either pitch
or a frozen water/soap  mix, to support the tube while it is being bent.
Also some interesting pictures of metal spinning in progress

Don Valentine



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Re: to bend a Thin pipe

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As a low-temperature engineer, I have a) access to cryogens and b) the
frequent need to fabricate intricate assemblies from small diameter,
thin wall tubing.   The tubing can be copper, phos bronze, stainless,
or sometimes cupernickel alloy.  

The easiest way is to use the tube like a soda straw, you dip it in
water, and stick your finger over the end to trap the water by preventing
air from coming back into the top of the tube.  Then dip into LN2
until the water freezes.  

Then bend (typically using gloves) to get the shape (bends, spirals, etc)
desired.  Keep the water solid by periodically re-dipping into the LN2.

Once the tube is warm, the water just blows right out.  The only real
problem is for real thin-walled stuff, the expansion can burst the wall
of the tubing.  Hence my caveat to him to try on a setup piece, first.

My worry is, for 2 cm dia tubing he may have trouble bending no matter
what he fills with.

Jim


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Re: to bend a Thin pipe
On 5 Dec 2005 12:52:08 -0800, with neither quill nor qualm, jim rozen

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So cupric alloys do well at low temps, remaining elastic. Interesting.


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"Just watch your dipping fingers", eh?


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Right.



Could be.  Thanks for the info, Jim.


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Re: to bend a Thin pipe

"jim rozen" wrote:  (clip) freeze the water with liquid nitrogen (clip)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
This brings up a few questions:
1.)  Where do you get liquid nitrogen?  Especially, where do you get enough
to submerge a length of tubing like this?
2.)  What kind of container would you use?
3.)  Why is liquid nitrogen better for this than, say, the freezing
compartment of your fridge?
4.)  Finally, as Larry wondered, what does low temperature do the ductility
of aluminum?



Re: to bend a Thin pipe
Lichtman says...
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It's a commercial cryogen, so it's available where I work at the
end of nearly every building aisle.  

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For small pieces I use a large styrofoam coffee cup.  Important
to empty the coffee out first, and keep telling youself "don't
drink, don't drink..."
 
For larger lengths a small nitrogen dewar is used.  This is
nothing more than a fiberglass or stainless thermos bottle, deep
enought to submerge the tubing.  Actually I had a tougher time
finding a deep container for the *water* and finally had the
glassblower at work make a deep glass beaker for me.

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Aside from the fact that it allows the ice to be re-frozen during
the bending rapidly, not much.  It also allows one to freeze the
water rapidly so it does not run out of the tube.  Also I don't
have a freezer of any size at work.

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I certainly hope it doesn't embrittle much.  The inner vessels of most
of our research dewars are made of aluminum sheet, rolled and welded
into cylinders.  These are used to hold liquid helium for the most part.

Unlike polymers, the ductitility of most metals is not strongly dependent
on temperature.

Jim


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Re: to bend a Thin pipe

-snip-
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funny this came up tonight.  earlier i was out in my (unheated)
barn/workshop and was thinking about a post i put up a few months ago in
reply to a thread about the steel of the titanic becoming brittle in the
cold ocean water.  at that time i said it always seemed to me to be b.s.
that steel (or were they using wrought iron?) could become measurably more
brittle with a difference of only 30 ~ 40 degrees Fahrenheit.  (i don't know
what the water temperature was at southampton (in april) when they left, or
exactly what the water temp was when they hit the iceberg, but i was
guessing something like 60 degrees and 28 degrees.)  was wondering if there
were any metallurgists on the list who could confirm it.

p.s.  jim, that sounds like some fun stuff to play with.  i thought they
always said if you put liquid water into liquid nitrogen it would "blow up".
(i'm not doubting you, just one more "myth")

(reminds me, recent story in the local paper, the aluminum extruders in the
factory next to what used to be the schrade knife works in ellenville ny,
Hydro Aluminum, they had an explosion recently, i think it blew down some
walls and blew out some windows, said some rain water got into some kind of
aluminum melting device, exploded.  wow huh?  (i remember months ago someone
writing about a re-bar plant somewhere and how you could hear for MILES the
explosions when/if some water/ice went into the molten metal vat.  wow!)



http://www.recordonline.com /
November 28, 2005
Chemical reaction caused explosion

   Ellenville - A chemical reaction at the Hydro Aluminum of North America
plant Saturday night caused an explosion that blew out wall panels and
scattered dust over a 30,000 square foot building.
   "The local building inspector issued an order to close the building until
a structural engineer could come in to evaluate the damage," Bob Newmyer,
managing director of the remelt facility, said yesterday.
   Newmyer described the reaction as rain water that came into contact with
the liquid aluminum in the melting furnace. The encounter caused the release
of steam and a powerful burst of energy that popped out some wall panels.
   Napanoch and Ellenville fire departments responded to the scene just
after 11 p.m. Saturday. There were no injuries and the release is not
considered toxic.
   Workers at that part of the plant have been asked not to come in until
the building inspector says it is safe to re-enter the building and clean up
efforts are complete. About five people per shift were affected.
   "We'll be using regular cleaning crews brooms and vacuums to get the
dust off the machinery before we start it back up," Newmyer said.
   Wawarsing building inspector Robin Coleman said the department would have
no comment on the incident until she'd reviewed the structural report.
   Deborah Medenbach



Re: to bend a Thin pipe

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Yes, steel gets brittle at lower temperatures. IIRC it is below 30 or
40C. Not all alloys react and some more and some less. And yes, just a
little temperature difference makes a big difference in ductility.

Copper, brass, bronce, aluminium and austenitic steels don't get brittle
at low temps.

Can't (quickly) find any diagrams for more details.


Nick
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Re: to bend a Thin pipe

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    I've noticed you using this word several times in the past.  I
*think* that you mean "bronze", not "bronce", which I have never
encountered.

    Sorry about the spelling pointer, but overall you do so well in
a second language that I had to point this one out since you keep using
it.  I certainly could not do as  well in German as you do in English.

    Enjoy,
        DoN.

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Re: to bend a Thin pipe

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Oh, sorry. So it is the same spelling like in German. I didn't look it
up in the dictionary. OTOH, we sometimes write "bronce" (old spelling).
And this looked more english to me. 8->


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Nothing to beg my pardon. And thanks for the flowers! :-)


Nick
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Motor Modelle // Engine Models
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Re: to bend a Thin pipe
says...
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Googling "brittle to ductile transition" will turn up plenty. Here's one
interesting link...

http://www.matsci.ucdavis.edu/MatSciLT/EMS -
174L/Files/DuctileBrittleTransition.pdf

The transition can be quite dramatic. I've been working on automation
and tooling for forming tungsten and molybdenum, both of which have a
well defined BDT within a few hundred degrees of room temperature. Moly
wire that seems to break if you look at it sideways becomes pliable with
the application of some hot air.

Ned Simmons

Re: to bend a Thin pipe
I grew up in Southampton, and trust me, if we ever got 60F in April
(yes, I know you mean sea temperature), there would be dancing in the
streets :-)

William Wixon wrote:
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Re: to bend a Thin pipe
To be honest, that's exactly how we do it. But it takes too much time
and precaution, to bend a pipe this way, especially when there's more
than one to do (you have to let the ice liquify completely, or else you
could have locally melted ice that would brake the pipe while
refreezing), and we that a competitor bends his pipes at ambient temp
already filled with ammonium at saturation ( 8 atmospheres!!), and that
works(with a certain but acceptable lost of the efficiency)!! We don't
know if it's their shape or an outside guidance of the pipe that
prevents their heat pipe from breaking or stop working.
So I thought of small rods at the same size of the gap, that would
slide on the tube and be less deformed than the pipe (pipe 15%
deformated, rods : 1.5%) and stay in the elastic zone, so they can be
removed easilly after bending.

But then other problems : what would prevent the expension of the gaps?
What kind of metal to use for the rods (elastic enough, but higher
young module than alumnium)?


Re: to bend a Thin pipe

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I guess that even with those fins, you can use a mandrel bender. Only
making the mandrel would be a bit tricky (but still doable).

Advantage of the mandel bender:
You just have left some oil in the tube after bending. Setup-time only
once, and then every bend is just something of 1/2 a minute.


Nick
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