Hmm ... only a #7, and for bevel gears (ones whose teeth form a cone instead of a cylinder). Very coarse pitch, so unlikely to be needed for anything which fits in your (or my) shops. :-) And the only thing you can do is make a pair of identical gears for probably a right angle pair. (I'm not sure what the numbering means in the bevel gear cutters.)
I shuffled these a bit the 5P bevel belong in a separate bunch from the normal cutters above. Still a rather coarse pitch for home machines, and about half a full set. Note that a No. 1 is for 135 teeth to a rack gear.
Again -- a rather coarse one, and only one for the bevel set.
Again -- half a set. They didn't seem to like rack gears, or many of the middle tooth counts.
O.K. You could make a rather coarse set which fit at a right angle while changing speeds.
Again -- (less than) a half set -- this time focusing towards the smaller tooth counts.
O.K. you could make a pair of gears for 3:1 or 4:1 ratios using these. Still a bit large.
O.K. This set is getting into a reasonable size range for a large lathe. I would guess a 16" swing or so -- and is missing only No. 1 and No 8. With the No. 1 you could make a rack and pinion for feeding the carriage -- and I haven't checked the pitch of those on my 12" Clausing. Looking at the drawings in the manual, I would guess that it is the same pitch as the gears in the headstock. But if you need a big rack and pinion you would want these -- but with a No. 1 -- and if you need fewer than 14 teeth on the pinion, you would want the No. 8, or perhaps need a real gear hobber for even fewer teeth.
Another reasonable partial set -- . The 'D' seem to be clues as to how deep to cut from the OD of the gear to complete the tooth depth. It looks as though they made a lot of the 12 DP gears in the 35 to 54 tooth range, and in the 26-34 tooth range as well. I suspect that you'll find most of them are rather dull by now -- and they bought replacements to continue production as each got dull.
Now -- we skip over the size which would be most useful for me the 16 DP 14-1/2 degree PA. I noticed no markings for PA (Pressure Angle) in your list at all. There should be a marking, perhaps on the other side of the cutters.
Perhaps reasonable for a 9" or 10" lathe? But only for the smallest tooth count since it is a No. 8.
And a single middle-of-the-road one for a rather small gear with a 24 DP.
Now -- these two are at least intersting. Two different roller chain sizes and I think that both are larger roller chains than those commonly used for bicycles. The 5/16 size is pretty close -- I think that bikes are 1/4" roller chains. The 9/16" might be for a fairly hefty motorcycle chain.
If you want to experiment with cutting gears, I would suggest that you go with the 24 DP one -- or if you want to cut fewer teeth in your trial -- go to the 18 DP one. A 12 tooth gear should not be too difficult to cut on a rotary table without disk and arms -- you stop every 30 degrees. With the 24 DP one, you would aim for a 36 tooth gear, so you would stop ever ten degrees. Neither would be too bad to deal with. To test your gears, you should probably make two of the same pitch and check how they mesh -- and whether the centers are the proper distance apart.
Overall -- most of what you have are too big to likely be useful for your existing machines, and probably too big to cut with the right angle head without the outboard arbor support as well.
I would be careful with the 4 pitch one even on my Nichols Horizontal mill -- except perhaps an an Aluminum blank.
Go to _Machinery's Handbook_ to find formulas for calculating the starting diameter for a given tooth count for a given pitch.
It looks as though the most useful DP range has been taken out before the lot was sold.
I would suggest that you check with eBay for disposing of your coarser ones. Maybe keep the 8 DP on down (in size) to the 24 DP. But if you settle on a given DP (and PA) get the other gear cutters to fill out the set. And I don't think that the bevel gear cutters will be much use to your -- there aren't enough of them to really do much.
Good Luck, DoN.
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