I feel compelled, again, to say sorthing in "blacksmithing". if anyone is interested, I wrote an article, based on this skill set, that discusses ways that folks might apply this tool to their own situation.
Skills expected for the employment of a Journeyman Blacksmith
> These standards were developed by the Appalachian Blacksmiths Association, an
ABANA chapter and registered with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, United States Department of Labor.
> 1. Drawing Out: Draw a bar to a point or dress an edge or point a tool. >
> 2. Upsetting: Upset to at least 1 ½ times the diameter or width of a bar on
the end and in the middle.
> 3. Bending: Make a ring out of bar stock or flat stock; forge a square corner
right angle bend in square stock.
> 4. Punching, slitting and decorative punch work: Show an example of decorative
punch work; punch a hole in a bar the same size as the width of the bar.
> 5. Drifting: Make a drift and use it to smooth, shape or enlarge a hole. >
> 6. Mortise and Tenon: Make an assembly from at least two separate pieces using
> 7. Collaring: Make an assembly from at least two separate pieces using this technique.
> 8. Scroll Work: Make two different types of scrolls.
> 9. Splitting: Split a bar with a hot cut in the middle or at the end of the bar.
> 10. Fullering, grooving, veining, set hammering: Show examples of each or if
used as an intermediate technique, describe how and why the techniques are used.
> 11. Riveting: Make two assemblies from at least two separate pieces for each
assembly using hot riveting and cold riveting (pop riveting is not acceptable).
> 12. Forge Welding: Show at least three different techniques.
> 13. Arc Welding, brazing, soldering, oxyacetylene torch welding: Show an
example of each.
> 14. Hot Rasping, filing: Hot rasp the torch cut end of a bar to reasonable
straightness and evenness, show a workpiece which has been filed to a smooth, flat surface, describe the types, care and use of files.
> 15. Sinking, raising, metal spinning: Make or show a hemispherical or hollow
object made from flat sheet using any one technique.
> 16. Grinding: Know how to use a body grinder (portable grinder), pedestal
grinder, belt grinder, sharpening stones and abrasive papers; know the types of abrasives and how they are graded and classified, show an edge tool that you have sharpened.
> 17. Drilling, tapping, die work and threads: Drill and tap a hole, thread the
end of a bar with a die, know the common thread classifications, know the common drill size classifications, and the care and use of twist drills.
> 18. Heat treating, hardening, tempering, annealing, case hardening: Know how
to properly anneal, harden and temper carbon tool steel, know how to use and case harden mild steel, know the colors for tempering, make or show a tool you have made that has been heat treated and will cut or forge mild steel without breaking or suffer deformation on the working end.
> 19. Heading: Head two bolts, one square headed, and one hex headed; head a
nail, head a rivet.
> 20. Cutting and shearing: Know how to use the hot cut, cold cut, hack saw,
tinsnips, bench or floor shear, know how to use the oxyacetylene torch for cutting and demonstrate each technique.
> 21. Swaging: Swage a tenon or make the end of a square bar round using a swage. >
> 22. Twisting: Show two different twists in a square bar.
> 23. Shop safety: Know first aid techniques for cuts, burns, abrasions and
other shop related injuries; describe methods of hearing, sight and body protection and why they are necessary; know power tool and machinery safety including welding equipment safety.
> 24. Basic metallurgy: Know the properties and use of wrought iron, mild steel,
carbon and tool steels and their classification, cast iron, brass, copper, aluminum; know sheet and plate gauging for ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
> 25. Fire and Fuel: Know the constituents of good shop coal; know the different
types of coal fires and fire maintenance.
> 26. Jigs and dies: Make both a jig and a die for doing repetitive production
work and show examples of work produced with them.
------------------ Pete Stanaitis