lag lead compensator

can any one explain about the lag lead compensation ?

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The lag comes after the signal. Lead results is when there is a signal that comes earlier.
Note that this lousy explanation is twice as long as your lousy question.
Bill
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" snipped-for-privacy@gmail.com" wrote:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead-lag_compensator
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Paul Hovnanian mailto: snipped-for-privacy@Hovnanian.com
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Here is a simple but by no means complete explanation: In all physical system the amplitude of the output decreases with increasing frequency. Therfore no physical system can have an infinite frequency response. The frequency response of a system may be flat for awhile with increasing frequency but always breaks off and begins to decrease and some frequency. Each such break point is called a pole. Each pole or break point has an associated phase shift of 45 degrees at the pole frequency and ultimatly approaching 90 degrees at frequencies way higher than the pole.
A series resistor connected to a shunt capacitor is a single pole device. It has a pole frequency of 1/(2*pi*R*C) Hz. At low frequencies, signals go right through and at higher frequencies, beyond the pole frequency the amplitude decays and the phase shift increases towards 90 deg at very high frequencies. It's 45 deg at the pole. Mechanical systems with intertia have similar responses. Most real system have multiple poles accumulating 90 degrees of phase shift for each pole. Phase shifts of 270 degrees or beyond are not uncommon.
All is well and good until one trys to put feedback around such a system. Negative feedback is used to control a system and keep it responding accurately to a control signal. Feedback takes some of the output signal and compares it with the control signal then re-applies it to the input. If the feedback is negative, the output follows the control, but if the feedback becomes positive, the output re-stimulates the input in an increasing way and the output slams into its stops and is unstable.
Since all systems have poles, all systems have phase shift. If there are two or more poles, the phase shift at some frequency becomes 180 deg or more, 2 X 90 deg. If this system is connected with feed back, at some frequency the negative feedback gets shifted 180 deg. and become positive feed back. This ain't good and the system will oscillate at that frequency.
If the gain around the total loop including the feedback is less than one, positive feedback will not cause instability because gain less than one means the system output will settle out and does not re-stimulate itself regardless of phase shift. A gain less than one does not regenerate.
The goal and purpose of compensation is to keep the phase shift from accumulating to 180 Deg. before the loop gain decays to unity. It also should push the frequency response as high as possible and keep undershoot, overshoot and oscillatory behavior in bounds.
Lead-lag compensation is one type but not the only type. The lead network has a zero in the response; i.e., a response opposite that of a pole. It has a leading phase response and is used to cancel or nearly cancel one of the natural poles. This pushes the frequency response out and also reduces the phase shift for a while, but it keeps the gain high. It also introduces another higher frequency pole because it not possible to have a zero (lead) without a pole further out in the response.
In order to get the gain to decay to unity at a reasonable frequency before the phase accumulates to 180 deg., a lag network is added to the lead network. This adds a pole at a strategic location to drop the gain below unity before the phase shift accumulates to 180 deg.
That's it in a nut shell, but it takes knowledge of the system and some math to figure what to do to get the best response and stability.
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