"Closed" Cycle Internal Reaction Engines



I've been looking at this long and hard for quite sometime now......and none of the available technologies are ready for automobiles except for the ICE and the EV, and of course the hybrid combination of the two....
You want efficiency, go to a deisel direct injection series hybrid. The highly efficient deisel direct injection engine can spin at it's most efficient operating point to operate a generator, and the electric motors will handle all the motive force. The engine/generator will have to be sized sufficiently to run the electric motors directly through all of their load requirements, and the batteries will need to hold enough power for normal range of driving. The engine has to be able to shut off when not needed to charge the batteries or drive the motors, and the generator should be able to run as a motor to turn the engine up to speed before starting (so the ICE doesn't operate outside its optimum range of efficiency.
As to the other "solutions" here is my list of problems.... h2o2 is highly caustic....all plumbing would have to be glass or stainless....I'm talking rend the flesh from your bones type caustic...so it would not be safe for refueling operations by your teenage son or your car clueless neighbor...
AMTEC, efficiencies comparable to ICE but a 10Kw system would be $50k and 2500lbs (I had someone do the math on this....might be justified for remote, fixed locations...but highly impracticle for cars...
Solar PV....efficiencies are too low, simply not enough area on a car to put the cells required concentrating PV and catalyst combustion IR heat source...efficiencies better, but still too low, and requires carrying on board fuel and lots of waste heat..they are best left to microCHP applications...wher the heat can be used for something
Nuclear batteries....yeah...lets get the consumer behind the wheel of a dirty bomb! Actually this one has promise as choice of isotope has a bearing on safety. Tritium is the isotope of choice, because it can be sheilded by a piece of paper, and the radiation cna't be absorbed through the skin....however, irradiated particles can be ingested or inhaled leading to radiation related ailments...so containment of the isotopes would have to be such as to safeguard from abrasion, fragmentation...etc. And of course the cost of producing the tritium would be insane...not to mention the regulatory hurdles...but you could run the car for ten years without ever refueling....
The others just don't have the efficiencies...pure thermo-electrics are only about 2% efficient...

Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
Bret Cahill included:

You might like the data I assembled a few years ago at http://www.eagle.ca/~gcowan/boron_blast.html#BtMT . Smaller numbers are better, and are represented by darker cell backgrounds.
Oxidations that produce dense oxides are entropy-reducing, but they are so energetic that at high temperatures the same oxidations yield low-density vapours, not so entropy-reducing any more, and are *still* highly energetic. So driving them backwards is hard. Maybe this is why you seem not to wish to consider oxygen as one of the reagents. I like oxygen and fire.
If you want something less fiery as it goes to the right, ammonia synthesis fits the bill, but really, with a 500-K-ish "flame temperature", it's not fiery *enough*.
The liquid ash that comes from a low-intensity -- but not too low -- fire, that you want to pipe away to a power station, and there, without excessively high temperatures, crack, may not exist. A defanged version of oxygen is needed ... sulphur, maybe. Pipe liquid sodium and an excess of sulphur to the power user, pipe sodium polysulphide back. Work is done by expanding sulphur vapour. Na2Sx is rather a hot liquid, though.
--- G. R. L. Cowan, former hydrogen fan Boron: internal combustion with nuclear cachet: http://www.eagle.ca/~gcowan/Paper_for_11th_CHC.html
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
wrote:

density
You are a scary guy! let's put a million little breeder reactors on the road....so that everyone from Granny on down through the high school level has a facility for making weapons grade nuclear material....I'm pretty sure the Government (and rightly so) would shut you down before you got the bugs out of the drivetrain.....
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload

The real danger is from contamination. Bin Laden will never build a megaton bomb but he'll certainly wrap some contamination around a conventional bomb.
Bret Cahill
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload

The real danger is from contamination. Bin Laden will never build a megaton bomb but he'll certainly wrap some contamination around a conventional bomb.
Bret Cahill
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload

The real danger is from contamination. Bin Laden will never build a megaton bomb but he'll certainly wrap some contamination around a conventional bomb.
Bret Cahill
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload

Polytechforum.com is a website by engineers for engineers. It is not affiliated with any of manufacturers or vendors discussed here. All logos and trade names are the property of their respective owners.