Please help me to solve the following problem. We produce copper rods
by horisontal continuous casting. Diameter of rod - 18 mm. Average
oxigen content is about 5 ppm. We often have poor quality due to the
cracks on the rod surface.
1. What the optimal linear speed of the rod must be(when cast
2. We use dispersed graphite as the copper melt cover. Is there
necessary to use protective atmosphere too?
3. How to reduce hydrogen influence? Is it the cause of bad quality?
Excuse me for long post. Thank You in advance.
Is there discoloration on the surface? that would indicate oxidation, which
can cause cracking. a gas blanket can solve that problem. Depending on the
temperature of the copper as it exits the process you can use argon, helium,
or CO2 ( in descending cost) if you really wanted to go cheap steam or a
hot water bath also works, or at least it works for copper wire. The thing
to consider with the hot water bath though is that it may effect the
hardness of the rod. Helium and argon are the best bets if you cannot
deal with the change in hardness. More details on your process would be
Hydrogen is nothing to do with it.
You cannot concast copper successfully by horizontal or vertically downwards
casting modes - without cracks.
It is not possible to solve this question.
This is common with many isothermal freezing entities cf. pure metals,
where the metallostatic head pressureon the newly solidified shell, gives
rise to an excesive friction effect, which casues drag on the shell and
results in cracks.
Since there is no freezing range with isothermal freezing entities. then
there is no MUSHY feed-thru' possible hence "healing" of the cracks IE as in
copper alloys such as bronzes, brasses. etc.
Vertical upwards casting is the way to go where negative strip of the
solidified shell conditions prevail and the result is NO CRACKS.
Speeds of production with upwards casting 18mm diameter rods ought to be ~
1.1 - 1.6 metres per minute using high effciency coolers.
Maintenance of good thick (typ 100mm) Graphite/carbon granule covers for
premelt and also for melt in holding furnace is critical - melt must not be
exposed to air, where on a humid day, the moisture content can be 10,000ppm
moisture - not conducive to low hydrogen contents, let alone worry about the
Good luck but you will have to change mode of casting to escape cracks.
Look us up and start in-depth dialogue if you wish at
----- Original Message -----
From: "Alexey Shubin"
Sent: Tuesday, September 02, 2003 11:11 AM
Subject: copper continuous casting - problem
The fact is that we can sometimes produce the copper rod with good
quality. But the casting speed is very law(about 10-15 cm/min).
Besides, when using this law speed of casting, the quality may be
good, and it may be bad.
We use raw material(cathodes) from one manufacturer. Graphite cover -
from one source(and it is very good graphite).
When casting, copper rod of diameter 18 mm goes horisontally. Regime -
start/stop, about 30 cycles/min. Crystallization occurs in graphite
crystallizator with water cooling(through copper wall). Than the rod
release from crystallyzator, it passes some way and than goes through
the second cooling - water stream. The surface of rod has normal
We know that some copper rod producers(in Russia too) use the similar
method with very good results. But they solved the problem(s). Casting
speed they use is about 90 cm/min and rod diameter 20 mm.
Consequently, horyzontal continuous casting of pure copper is
possible. But there are some sophysticate problems( with gases in
copper, or with details of cooling unit, or other).
What do You think about it?