The fact is that we can sometimes produce the copper rod with good quality. But the casting speed is very law(about 10-15 cm/min). Besides, when using this law speed of casting, the quality may be good, and it may be bad. We use raw material(cathodes) from one manufacturer. Graphite cover - from one source(and it is very good graphite). When casting, copper rod of diameter 18 mm goes horisontally. Regime - start/stop, about 30 cycles/min. Crystallization occurs in graphite crystallizator with water cooling(through copper wall). Than the rod release from crystallyzator, it passes some way and than goes through the second cooling - water stream. The surface of rod has normal copper color.
We know that some copper rod producers(in Russia too) use the similar method with very good results. But they solved the problem(s). Casting speed they use is about 90 cm/min and rod diameter 20 mm.
Consequently, horyzontal continuous casting of pure copper is possible. But there are some sophysticate problems( with gases in copper, or with details of cooling unit, or other).
What do You think about it?