hardening of metals

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"Metals" can be hardened by :
sticking in furnaces and cooling, Beating, bending or stretching, Irradiation Cheimcal alloying Driving other metal atoms into the substance by things like ion bombardment Other ways (AKA, Heat Treatment, Work Hardening, Irradiation, Alloying, Ion Bombardment)
Pretty much any metal can be hardened in some way. And, pretty much any metal IS hardened for some uses in some ways.
It isn't rare or unusual to harden a metal, in fact, it is one of the most common things to do.
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Various metals are hardened in different ways, for instance steel can be hardened by controlled precipitation, martensitic transformation, or cold working to name a few. Almost all metals can be hardened through the introduction of dislocations caused by cold working and by controlling grain size and composition during formation. google "metal hardening" or "metal tempering" 722,000 hits.
Reply to
Jim Painter
Which metals can not be work-hardened by inducing more dislocations?
All metals can be heat-treated but not all metals will be hardened after the treatment. If one wants to know if the heat treatment helps, one has to look at phase diagrams (to see if a phase change happens for the specific composition), TTT (for holding times) or CT-diagrams (for cooling rates). I think those would also be good search words for google.
Med venlig hilsen / Best regards Martin Jørgensen
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Martin Jørgensen

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