A cornet is a bugle with valves. A trumpet has a straight pipe
(2/3 straight - 1/3 tapered, IIRC) and a cornet tapered tube (2/3s
tapered). The trumpet has a higher 'Q', thus a harsher sound.
It's much like the difference between a trombone and baritone or
euphonium. Same ratio of tapered to straight tubing.
I know that as a "triumphant trumpet"; the instrument they use at
horse tracks for "The Call to Races". It is a trumpet, so has 2/3s
No, a short horn would give a higher pitch. The crisper sound is
caused by straight tubing.
Look at the taper. The french horn is quite tapered with very
little straight tubing. A trumpet or trombone has very straight
Historically speaking you had your horns which were mostly tapered,
including bugles. And your trumpets which were mostly constant
diameter except in the first and last sections. But after the
introduction of valves the difference in the amount of tapered tubing
largely went away. Any tubing inserted by a valve must be the same
diameter at both ends, so the more valves that are engaged the lower
the proportion of tapered tubing to overall length. Further, the
diameter of the tubing in each valve tends to be the same as they are
usually located adjacent to each other without much room for taper in
between. There have been some exceptions with fourth valves on
euhphoniums and fourth and fifth valves on french horns sometimes
using different diameter tubing, but by and large the modern valved
instruments carry a high, and nearly equal, fraction of their overall
length as cylindrical tubing.
Until the mid 1800's trumpets were valveless instruments, most
popularly single coiled about 9 feet long and standing in D alto.
Being longer than bugles, a typical player could access more of their
overtones and thus obtain more notes than on the shorter valveless
Other historical divergences include the keyed bugle, and Adolphe
Sax's first family of inventions, the saxhorns, which are saxophone-
hinting bodies lip-blown with brass instrument type mouthpieces.
Ah, now Dimmie, it's the holiday season. No need to get yourself
all worked up. Why don't you go through mommy's laundry again.
She might have gotten some new socks for Christmas. You'll feel
A simple bugle only has four easy to reach notes - good for "Taps" ,
Charge, Chow call, horse races, Reveille, fanfares, etc. Not much
use for more complex music.
Each valve adds four notes and each combination of two or three valves
adds four notes. Twenty four notes for three valves. Single valve
bugle has 8 notes total - enough to play simple music
The human playing the horn can reach four easily resonant notes with
one length of pipe. "My Dog Has Fleas." You can fudge that with two
above and one or two below - but they do not have the same timbre or
volume. Like a clarinet hitting C above high C - it can do it, but
not many people can do it.
Your original statement was that "the trumpet only has 4 notes per
valve combination". You say you "played a trumpet" but you couldn't
have ever developed any facility on it, otherwise you'd know that's
just patently wrong.
Yes, it's true there are limited note choices with a given valve
combination in the lower register but the harmonics get closer the
higher you go. Add more valves and you're using a longer horn with
more harmonics in the lower register. With a 1-2-3 combination I count
7 partials just in the first two octaves of low F# to F# on the top of
When you say "only 4 easily reachable" notes - I assume referring to
the open horn - i.e. no valves - this may be true for a beginner who
can't even get to G on top of the staff (which you need for "taps") or
some old duffer who only takes it out of the case on Veteran's day or
something but this isn't true for someone who's developed any kind of
facility. Listen to even a good high school stage band and you'll hear
higher notes that are plenty "solid".
The University of Edinburgh made a set of artificial lips for experimenting
with trombone design.
It was two lengths of rubber tube with pressurised water in them.
Increasing or decreasing the pressure changed the note.
Air was blown through these lips to make the buzz
Someone got a PHd out of the project:
And here is her entire doctoral thesis:
You can see the apparatus in various pictures within it.
I wonder how big Mikey's doctoral thesis is?
Can we read it online?
The apparatus shown in Fig. 6.9 (p 118) should have to be fitted into
the robot head. The complexity of the artificial lips ("artifical
mouth") with its mechanical constraints seem to indicate that the
mouthpiece would have to be attached to it rather than to the trumpet
body. I noticed only a small orifice in the robot's face where the mouth
should be. Thus, the rumpet body should be only one side of a compressed
It downloaded readily for me in its entirety (except for the
On a sunny day (Sat, 22 Dec 2007 21:25:36 -0000) it happened "Gordon Hudson"
I have played trumpet once upon a time, but my ears did not get blue.
I did almost pass out once however, as it took all oxygen from my head....
I waited until the end of the movie to see if it would take the trumpet
down, so I could see the 'lips'.
For the rest it is pretty good:-)
And it likely does not spit so much as we do :-)
Could add that as a feature though!
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