What Jay has c&p'ed is the New Age continuation of ancient technology and Alchemy carried out at Penn State. It was likely spurned on by China's monopoly of the global Rare Earth Market.
The two main examples in that facsimile producing art are the well mimickers of Gold and Platinum made up from combinations of cheap & common materials like Copper, Nickel and Tin.
One begins with matching the *proton sum* of the starting materials (29Cu, etc.) with the desired proton # (79Au) in the respective noble elements:
29Cu & 50Sn :::: CuSn-Bronze = 79 ..... 79Au
28Ni & 50Sn :::: NiSn-NickelTin = 78 ..... 78Pt
As is well known, the ancient Bronze (CuSn), and the more modern "platinumy" Nickel Tin (NiSn) alloys can act as poor man's Gold resp. Platinum.
Both alloys have properties that are mimicking the state of the noble metals, and exhibit other desired properties that are not available in the noble metals.
There are a number of other such binary or tertiary alloy whose proton sum of its constituents mimic the macro characteristics of the same proton number element.
All in all, this is highly interesting R&D, that now has incorporated the particle size to mimic desired properties.
All of it is lab work; trial and error. The only theoretical help come from the 150 years old Periodic Table of the Elements by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1872).
So, let us see whether any of the Einstein Dingleberries with their curved Space-time or the QMorons with their HUP can predict how to produce the next new material.
Jai Stevens Maharaj" ------- orogilan tripe _____
Superatom mimics for rare earth elements
> By Simon Hadlington, Chemistry World, rsc.org
> Thursday, April 9, 2015
> [Caption] Rare earth metals such as neodymium are used to
> make the magnets found in wind turbines
> Researchers in the US believe they may be able to create
> mimics of rare earth elements by making new 'superatoms'
> composed of atomic clusters of other metals. The team
> demonstrated the concept by generating clusters of boron-
> doped lanthanum, which was shown to have the same number
> of valence electrons, unpaired electrons and magnetic
> moments as neodymium. Similarly, boron-doped neodymium
> had the same key electronic profile as europium. However,
> other researchers in the field remain sceptical that the
> approach could yield meaningful quantities of material.
> Rare earth elements have multiple high tech uses because
> of their unusual optical, magnetic and electronic
> properties. However, they are scarce and their extraction
> by mining is environmentally damaging, so major efforts
> are underway globally to seek alternatives.
> Now, a team at Pennsylvania State University led by
> Welford Castleman believes that clusters of metal atoms
> formed into 'superatoms' could be a fruitful approach.
> The researchers created clusters of two rare earth
> elements, lanthanum and neodymium, by vaporising the
> metal with a laser in an atmosphere of helium containing
> diborane. This produced boron-doped clusters of each
> metal. When these clusters were analysed by photoelectron
> imaging spectroscopy, the lanthanum-boron clusters
> appeared identical to neodymium, while the neodymium-
> boron clusters were analogous to europium.
> Continues at: