THE MECHANICS OF THE UNIVERSE

Copyright 1984-2006 Allen C. Goodrich

The planets orbit the sun in a special mean orbital radius L to conserve total energy. The modified first law of thermodynamics , which states that the total energy of the universe is a constant, is the fundamental equation of the universe. The sum of kinetic and potential energies is a constant.

m (2 pi L)^2 / t^2 + G m(M-m) /L = A CONSTANT. (if no charges are present)

- Delta m(2 pi L)^2/T^2 = - Delta Gm(M-m)/L

What's so important about this modified first law of thermodynamics? It says that no energy change or force is necessary for orbital motion.

A positive change of kinetic energy is accompanied by a negative change of potential energy relative to the rest of the universe to conserve the total energy. The universe has been found to be expanding at an accelerating rate. The potential energy of the universe is continually decreasing and the kinetic energy is continually increasing. Again, to conserve the total energy relative to the rest of the universe. This is why the modified first law is so important. The conservation of total energy must be maintained relative to the rest of the expanding universe. Kinetic and potential energies must be computed relative to the rest of the expanding universe.

This modified first law leads to the conclusion that the force of gravity and the velocity of light are misleading illusions.

The definition of Kinetic and Potential Energies is most important to an understanding that these energies are relative to the rest of the effective universe, not just relative to any other mass. Kinetic energy is mass m times the square of the velocity relative to the rest of the effective universe. For example the kinetic energy of the earth is effectively relative to the sun plus the rest of the planets of the solar systen. Potential energy is the product of the mass m times the mass of the rest of the effective universe M-m divided by the distance L between their effective centers of mass. M is the mass of the entire effective universe. t is the orbital time for one complete revolution. G is the gravitational constant. Once this is clearly understood, the modified First Law of Thermodynamics becomes the Fundamental Equatiion of the Universe. This equation ,then, defines the photon and the rest of the universe.

The Thomas R. Young two slit defraction pattern, the complete logic of quantum mechanics, the true nature of gravitation, the fact that light does not have a mass or a velocity, all become quite obvious. This is a simple solution to so many of the problems that baffled scientists for hundreds of years. We remember that Sir Isaac Newton proposed the force of gravity F_g = k m_1 m_2 / L^2. Scientists have known that action at a distance without the transfer of energy was not possible. A force of gravity would not be possible without the transfer of energy. The amount of energy required to cause the so called force of gravity to make the planets travel in orbits, other than the equilibrium orbit,about the sun would be tremendous and is not available. Another explanation is necessary. Einstein and other scientists have assuned that masses change the shape of space time. These explanations have their problems.

No problems exist if the modified first law of thermodynamics is used.This is the Fundamental Equation of the Universe.

One night when I was walking on Myrtle Beach in the light of the full moon, the full moon was at its highest point in the sky, and the beach was very wide. The lowest tide was present. This is not what would be expected according to the gravitational theory. The gravitational theory states that the tide should be very high. One can find this explained in most older dictionaries or encyclopedias. The water of the ocean is shown bulging on the side of the earth directly under the full moon. The tides never occur in this way. This discrepancy with the law of gravity is explained by the requirement for the time required for the water to flow due to the force . No one has bothered to explain that the water would have to flow at more than

1000 miles per hour to complete this picture. This flow would wash all of the continents away in one day, Here, we have a big problem with the force of gravity .The NOAA U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has monitored the tides at many ocean ports for many years and this data is available. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has plotted the position and phases of the moon with changes of time. This data is also available. No one has previously published a correlation ot these two sets of data. If they had, it would become very obvious that invariably the lowest tide occurred when the full moon and new moon were exactly directly at their highest point in the sky. It would have been obvious that the lowest tide also occurred on the opposite side of the earth. Not at all consistant with the existing gravitational theory. However, this is predicted by the modified first law of thermodynamics, when the kinetic and potential energies are relative to the rest of the effective universe.

The planets orbit the sun at a special mean radius L, to conserve total energy. If one calculates the kinetic and potential energies of the planets and moons,at orbital distance L, one finds that the two are nearly equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. This is the only mean orbital radius L where no change of total energy is necessary. Nature obays this modified first law.

The assumption of a force of gravity, with its energy transfer, action at a distance, is not necessary to explain orbital motion at equilibrium. Gravitation is explained by the modified first law of thermodynamics. A force must be present and an energy change is necessary at any other radius, such as a body on the surface of the earth.

The Thomas R. Young's two slit defraction pattern is also explained by the modified first law of thermodynamics if one uses the charges e in this fundamental equation for the calculation of kinetic and potential energies.

Delta e_1 (2 pi L)^2 / t^2 = Delta-K e_1 e_2 /

4 pi E_o L.Where e_2 is the charge of the rest of the effective universe and . e_1 is the orbital electron. E_o is the dielectric constant. Here, the masses would have little effect by comparison and can be neglected. The kinetic energy change of the electron would then be a function of a change of potential energy relative to the rest of the effective universe. The energy of the electron of the atom on the defraction pattern screen would be a function of the rest of the effective universe. The electron would sense the fact that one or two of the slits was open and the Thomas R Young defraction pattern is explained.

We now have the basis for a new quantum mechanics. Light , that is observed as a change of the kinetic energy of the electron, which has the correct energy density (time), direction and frequency, in the expanding universe, is not a particle, with mass and velocity ( kinetic energy ), but it is a function of the potential energy change of the rest of the effective universe .

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