Hall's Metal

Latest project has interesting mix of big end bearings, half have babbitt and the other, have "Hall's Metal" shells.
These are in knife & fork rods with the knife rod running on the babbitted outer of the fork rod. Anyone have any info on "Hall's Metal"? I seem to have struck out so far from my cursory search.
Tom
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Tom wrote:

Maybe you could narrow it down by country of origin and age. This rings a bell, but I looked in the usual places and couldn't find it. I found a GB patents by a Horace Campbell Hall of Derby relating to bearing metals, from the 1930s through the war. These are aluminium- based bearings, e.g. :
Abstract of GB470248 (1937)
Bearings, particularly for use in internal combustion engines, are made of aluminium alloys containing up to 1,5 per cent of magnesium, 1,5 to less than 8 per cent of tin or of tin along with one or more of the metals antimony, zinc, cadmium, lead, and bismuth, and 0,8-4,8 per cent of nickel or manganese or both with or without one or more of the metals vanadium, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten, the 0,8-4,8 per cent including also the iron content of the alloy. The alloys may contain 0,2-0,5 per cent of iron and 0,15-1 per cent of silicon. The cast alloys may be aged for about 6 hours at 155-170 DEG C., and after rough machining may be again aged for a further 6 hours at 155-170 DEG C. Specifications 426,211 and 448,777 are referred to.
Abstract of GB426211 (1935)
Alloys for bearings, particularly for high speed internal-combustion engines, consist of aluminium with 8-19 per cent of tin and 0,8-5 per cent of nickel or manganese or both, with or without up to 1 per cent of magnesium. Small amounts of other elements such as iron, silicon, copper, and zinc may be present, preferably not over 1,5 per cent. Casting may be effected in the ordinary way, or a bearing comprising a steel shell may be made by tinning the surface of the steel and dipping it into the alloy preparatory to casting the alloy thereon.
Cheshire Steve
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Steve wrote:

> > Actually been there and found those but unfortunately patents don't ascribe patentee names to products. I have no doubt that Horace Campbell Hall is the Hall of "Hall's Metal" as both he and the engine are from Derby, I was just hoping someone had an engineering handbook that was more explicit. Thanks for your efforts though.
Tom
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So do we assume from your response that your question relates to mid-20th century (and maybe Western Europe), as I have books going back to the 1840s - but I am not going to trawl through them on some wild goose-chase if you have a modern engine !
Whats the big secret that you can't tell us what this applies to ?
Cheshire Steve
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Steve wrote:

If I knew what you were alluding to above, perhaps I'd be able to answer. It would be helpful if you included even a partial quote.
Tom
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I can find no 'Halls Metal' in my own bearing metal records or the reference books I have acquired over 30 years in the business. We used to supply a 'Halls Valve Packing' metal to J&E Halls compressor factory in Dartford, but that was 12Sn88Pb and you would not want to use that for your bearings. Their con-rods were babbitted with our Hoyt No.11 or No.7 if for Ammonia (Cu free). Phil
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Phil wrote:

Hi Phil     I could have been clearer in as much that the HM shells are not steel backed shells but are made entirely of HM. The engine in question is from a 1936 RR Phantom III.
Tom
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Tom wrote:

Tom, It might be worth looking at this web site: http://www.boddice.co.uk/index1.htm the diary of a full strip and rebuild of a PIII engine. Regards, Richard (1935 Rover 12 s/s WAS 246 - not always stationary!)
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Richard Green wrote:

> Hi Richard I have had it bookmarked for a while. :-)
Tom
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Hi Tom, The RR and the date are interesting. To quote extracts from KEMPE'S: "In 1935 or therabouts research was begun to find bearing materials to carry high loads without the problems of Cu based alloys - main requirement was for advanced piston engines in aircraft. Research was mainly with Al alloys e.g. with 2 - 15% Cu, up to 46% Cd and 5 - 10% Sn, mainly as solid unbacked bearings. These alloys are relatively hard and their running properties leave much to be desired though their strengths are high." It sounds as though what you have may be some experimental bearings, but no doubt the shaft was hardened to offset the wear factor. One problem can be that if what you have is one of the high Cd content alloys, that is now recognised as a health hazard. RR I suppose dropped these designs. During the war Hoyt were mass producing bearings for all the Bristol/RR aero engines and the bearings were steel backed lined with Tin based alloy (Hoyt No.11Z3). If what you have is solid Al alloy, that could maybe be skimmed out and lined with babbitt (but avoid if high Cd content). We did Al alloy con rods sometimes at Hoyt. They can be a devil to tin, but once tinned, you can babbitt them like any steel or bronze bearing. Regards Phil
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