How America Convinced the World to Wipe
Since the dawn of time, people have found nifty ways to clean up after the
bathroom act. The most common solution was simply to grab what was at hand:
coconuts, shells, snow, moss, hay, leaves, grass, corncobs, sheep?s wool?and,
later, thanks to the printing press?newspapers, magazines, and pages of books.
The ancient Greeks used clay and stone. The Romans, sponges and salt water. But
the idea of a commercial product designed solely to wipe one?s bum? That started
about 150 years ago, right here in the U.S.A. In less than a century, Uncle
Sam?s marketing genius turned something disposable into something indispensable.
How Toilet Paper Got on a Roll
The first products designed specifically to wipe one?s nethers were aloe-infused
sheets of manila hemp dispensed from Kleenex-like boxes. They were invented in
1857 by a New York entrepreneur named Joseph Gayetty, who claimed his sheets
prevented hemorrhoids. Gayetty was so proud of his therapeutic bathroom paper
that he had his name printed on each sheet. But his success was limited.
Americans soon grew accustomed to wiping with the Sears Roebuck catalog, and
they saw no need to spend money on something that came in the mail for free.
Toilet paper took its next leap forward in 1890, when two brothers named
Clarence and E. Irvin Scott popularized the concept of toilet paper on a roll.
The Scotts? brand became more successful than Gayetty?s medicated wipes, in part
because they built a steady trade selling toilet paper to hotels and drugstores.
But it was still an uphill battle to get the public to openly buy the product,
largely because Americans remained embarrassed by bodily functions. In fact, the
Scott brothers were so ashamed of the nature of their work that they didn?t take
proper credit for their innovation until 1902.
?No one wanted to ask for it by name,? says Dave Praeger, author of Poop
Culture: How America Is Shaped by Its Grossest National Product. ?It was so
taboo that you couldn?t even talk about the product.? By 1930, the German paper
company Hakle began using the tag line, ?Ask for a roll of Hakle and you won?t
have to say toilet paper!?
As time passed, toilet tissues slowly became an American staple. But widespread
acceptance of the product didn?t officially occur until a new technology
demanded it. At the end of the 19th century, more and more homes were being
built with sit-down flush toilets tied to indoor plumbing systems. And because
people required a product that could be flushed away with minimal damage to the
pipes, corncobs and moss no longer cut it. In no time, toilet paper ads boasted
that the product was recommended by both doctors and plumbers.
The Strength of Going Soft
In the early 1900s, toilet paper was still being marketed as a medicinal item.
But in 1928, the Hoberg Paper Company tried a different tack. On the advice of
its ad men, the company introduced a brand called Charmin and fitted the product
with a feminine logo that depicted a beautiful woman. The genius of the campaign
was that by evincing softness and femininity, the company could avoid talking
about toilet paper?s actual purpose. Charmin was enormously successful, and the
tactic helped the brand survive the Great Depression. (It also helped that, in
1932, Charmin began marketing economy-size packs of four rolls.) Decades later,
the dainty ladies were replaced with babies and bear cubs?advertising vehicles
that still stock the aisles today.
By the 1970s, America could no longer conceive of life without toilet paper.
Case in point: In December 1973, Tonight Show host Johnny Carson joked about a
toilet paper shortage during his opening monologue. But America didn?t laugh.
Instead, TV watchers across the country ran out to their local grocery stores
and bought up as much of the stuff as they could. In 1978, a TV Guide poll
named Mr. Whipple?the affable grocer who implored customers, ?Please don?t
squeeze the Charmin??the third best-known man in America, behind former
President Richard Nixon and the Rev. Billy Graham.
Currently, the United States spends more than $6 billion a year on toilet
tissue?more than any other nation in the world. Americans, on average, use 57
squares a day and 50 lbs. a year.
Even still, the toilet paper market in the United States has largely plateaued.
The real growth in the industry is happening in developing countries. There,
it?s booming. Toilet paper revenues in Brazil alone have more than doubled since
2004. The radical upswing in sales is believed to be driven by a combination of
changing demographics, social expectations, and disposable income.
?The spread of globalization can kind of be measured by the spread of Western
bathroom practices,? says Praeger. When average citizens in a country start
buying toilet paper, wealth and consumerism have arrived. It signifies that
people not only have extra cash to spend, but they?ve also come under the
influence of Western marketing.
America Without Toilet Paper
Even as the markets boom in developing nations, toilet paper manufacturers find
themselves needing to charge more per roll to make a profit. That?s because
production costs are rising. During the past few years, pulp has become more
expensive, energy costs are rising, and even water is becoming scarce. Toilet
paper companies may need to keep hiking up their prices. The question is, if
toilet paper becomes a luxury item, can Americans live without it?
The truth is that we did live without it, for a very long time. And even now, a
lot of people do. In Japan, the Washlet?a toilet that comes equipped with a
bidet and an air-blower?is growing increasingly popular. And all over the world,
water remains one of the most common methods of self-cleaning. Many places in
India, the Middle East, and Asia, for instance, still depend on a bucket and a
spigot. But as our economy continues to circle the drain, will Americans part
with their beloved toilet paper in order to adopt more money-saving measures? Or
will we keep flushing our cash away? Praeger, for one, believes a toilet-paper
apocalypse is hardly likely. After all, the American marketing machine is a