I believe aluminum alloy carb parts generally have a surface protection treatment, and when the "coating" is compromised, the underlying metal is unprotected, and rapidly attacked by oxidation and any other compound that gets near it.
You may be able to strip the white "blooming" away, but without the protective skin, I think it's likely to resume blooming/corroding as it gets exposed to other materials.. a little water in the gasoline, etc.
If you're adventurous, try blasting the area (low air pressure) with table salt or other granular material that will dissolve quickly for cleaning after blasting.
I forget what causes the white crystallization of aluminum.. a salt maybe (so salt may be a bad choice), and if treated with a base, the white corrosion may be able to be cleaned away effectively, but that doesn't mean it will be stopped. I've seen these same spots on chemistry lab stands, bases/parts, but those parts can often be repainted after the corrosion is cleaned away.
I think there is probably a method for restoring antique carb parts' protective layer, so possibly, old car enthusiasts may have an answer.
I had an electric motor at the back of a bench, which sat in contact with a sandstone wall for about 2 years (below grade and the wall had been coated with unknown products). The end bell of the motor was an aluminum alloy, and a considerable area of that end bell rotted/corroded away by the time I discovered it. The hole was large enough that a golf ball could've passed thru it, so compounds in the stone or the flaky coatings rotted the aluminum. White, crystalline residue around the hole.