The Forgotten History of Britain's White Slaves in America
American Thinker.com ^ | July 28, 2017 | Janet Levy
Posted on 7/28/2017, 11:32:41 AM by Kaslin
Slavery in America, typically associated with blacks from Africa, was an
enterprise that began with the shipping of more than 300,000 white Britons
to the colonies. This little known history is fascinatingly recounted in
White Cargo (New York University Press, 2007). Drawing on letters, diaries,
ship manifests, court documents, and government archives, authors Don Jordan
and Michael Walsh detail how thousands of whites endured the hardships of
tobacco farming and lived and died in bondage in the New World.
Following the cultivation in 1613 of an acceptable tobacco crop in Virginia,
the need for labor accelerated. Slavery was viewed as the cheapest and most
expedient way of providing the necessary work force. Due to harsh working
conditions, beatings, starvation, and disease, survival rates for slaves
rarely exceeded two years. Thus, the high level of demand was sustained by a
continuous flow of white slaves from England, Ireland, and Scotland from
1618 to 1775, who were imported to serve America's colonial masters.
These white slaves in the New World consisted of street children plucked
from London's back alleys, prostitutes, and impoverished migrants searching
for a brighter future and willing to sign up for indentured servitude.
Convicts were also persuaded to avoid lengthy sentences and executions on
their home soil by enslavement in the British colonies. The much maligned
Irish, viewed as savages worthy of ethnic cleansing and despised for their
rejection of Protestantism, also made up a portion of America's first slave
population, as did Quakers, Cavaliers, Puritans, Jesuits, and others.
(Excerpt) Read more at americanthinker.com ...
An "indentured servant" isn't quite a slave. They were
not viewed as un-human and there were mechanisms
through which they could become free again. For the
most part, indentured servitude was a sort of judicial
sentence, and it had an expiration date.
Some indentured servants WERE treated very badly,
but on the whole they were still considered citizens
of the Crown. Black African slaves were non-citizens,
non-humans, considered uncivilized and uneducable.
Cattle had more rights, more status.
I didn't read Kopypasta's copy-and-paste, but that story has
circulated around here before. It is utter bullshit.
The *overwhelming* number of Irish, English, and other Europeans
arrived here in the early years as indentured servants. Between half
and two-thirds of the immigrants to the 13 colonies were indentured.
The large majority used the indenture mechanism to pay their passage
to America; they weren't here because of legal sentences.
Otherwise, it's as you described.
He's trying to sell an "equivalence" ... of the "2+2""
variety in this case.
The indentured DID have it bad sometimes, but they
weren't seen in the same light as African slaves ...
they were still "people", "British subjects", and could
regain their freedoms and rights after a period and
live normal lives. Many an ex-indentured became
As for those that died ... LOTS of people died young
in the Americas at that time - it was a wild frontier
and what little useful medical knowledge existed
was spread out pretty thin. Quite a number of our
Founders suffered dead wives and children - it
was the norm.
Correct - work-4-passage, a sort of business arrangement.
Not that they had it *easy* though ... workers of every kind
got the short sticky end of the stick back then, and the
indentured were not free men, considered to be of the
lowest rank in a class-conscious culture.
Also, while a "majority" probably met the above description
that leaves a rather large minority that WERE pressed into
servitude because of legal problems (maybe real crimes
but also maybe just "being Irish" or of very low social rank
and thus ideal to exploit for cheap colonial labor). The Brits
were pretty smart (in a wicked way) about colonialism ...
success often counted on the sheer NUMBER of people
there. It's why deportation to Australia became so popular.
Not exactly a "dumping ground" - it was "nation building".
Put a bunch of people somewhere, even if they don't
WANT to be there, and they'll quickly develop a vested
interest in the place - and anyone who can defend them
against foreign enemies. All those Brit prisoners were
STILL Brits .... and acted accordingly.
Were I torn from friends and family and sent halfway around the world on
a prison ship to be worked as a slave, I would consider Britain to be
the foreign enemy. I've never understood the fondness of the US upper
crust for Britain but then I'm not a Brit.
Blood is thicker than water. When push comes to shove, you'll fall in
line with people of your own race and language. That's why Americans of
British descent put Americans of Japanese, German and Italian descent in
WWI and WWII into internment camps.
Please list the WWI internment camps.
Please list the German and Italian WWII internment camps.
Right here ---->
"There are fewer poor people in the world because socialism has worked
in China, Klausie. "
-Stalin Apologist and Socialist History Revisionist "Wannabe,"
October 14, 2015
The internment of German Americans refers to the detention of German
nationals and German-American citizens in the United States during the
periods of World War I and of World War II. During World War II, the
legal basis for internment was under Presidential Proclamation 2526,
made by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt under the authority of the
Alien and Sedition Acts.
With the US entry into war, German nationals were automatically
classified as "enemy aliens."
At the time of WWII, the United States had a large population of ethnic
Germans. Among residents of the USA in 1940, more than 1.2 million
persons had been born in Germany, 5 million had two native-German
parents, and 6 million had one native-German parent.
Many more had distant German ancestry. During WWII, the United States
detained at least 11,000 ethnic Germans, overwhelmingly German
nationals. The government examined the cases of German nationals
individually, and detained relatively few in internment camps run by the
Department of Justice, as related to its responsibilities under the
Alien and Sedition Acts. To a much lesser extent, some ethnic German US
citizens were classified as suspect after due process and also detained.
Similarly, a small proportion of Italian nationals and Italian Americans
were interned in relation to their total population in the US. The
United States had allowed immigrants from both Germany and Italy to
become naturalized citizens, which many had done by then. In the early
21st century, Congress considered legislation to study treatment of
European Americans during WWII, but it did not pass the House of
Representatives. Activists and historians have identified certain
injustices against these groups.
World War I
President Woodrow Wilson issued two sets of regulations on April 6,
1917, and November 16, 1917, imposing restrictions on German-born male
residents of the United States over the age of 14. The rules were
written to include natives of Germany who had become citizens of
countries other than the U.S.; all were classified as aliens. Some
250,000 people in that category were required to register at their local
post office, to carry their registration card at all times, and to
report any change of address or employment. The same regulations and
registration requirements were imposed on females on April 18, 1918.
Some 6,300 such aliens were arrested. Thousands were interrogated and
investigated. A total of 2,048 were incarcerated for the remainder of
the war in two camps, Fort Douglas, Utah, for those west of the
Mississippi, and Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, for those east of the
The cases of these aliens, whether being considered for internment or
under internment, were managed by the Enemy Alien Registration Section
of the Department of Justice. From December 1917 this section was headed
by J. Edgar Hoover, then not yet 23 years old.
Among the notable internees were the geneticist Richard Goldschmidt and
29 players from the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Their music director,
Karl Muck, spent more than a year at Fort Oglethorpe, as did Ernst
Kunwald, the music director of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. One
internee described a memorable concert in the mess hall packed with 2000
internees, with honored guests such as their doctors and government
censors on the front benches, facing 100 musicians. Under Muck's baton,
he wrote, "the Eroica rushed at us and carried us far away and above war
and worry and barbed wire."
Most internees were paroled in June 1919 on the orders of Attorney
General A. Mitchell Palmer. Some remained in custody until as late
as March and April 1920.
Merchant marine vessels
Until the U.S. declared war on Germany, German commercial vessels and
their crews were not detained. In January 1917, there were 54 such
vessels in mainland U.S. ports and one in San Juan, Puerto Rico, free to
leave. With the declaration of war, 1,800 merchant sailors became
prisoners of war.
Over 2,000 German officers and sailors were interned in Hot Springs,
North Carolina on the grounds of the Mountain Park Hotel.
Before the U.S. entered the war, several German military vessels were
docked in U.S. ports; officials ordered them to leave within 24 hours or
submit to detention. The crews were first treated as alien detainees and
then as prisoners of war (POWs). In December 1914 the German gunboat
Cormoran, pursued by the Japanese Navy, tried to take on provisions and
refuel in Guam. When denied what he required, the commanding officer
accepted internment as enemy aliens rather than return to sea without
sufficient fuel. The ship's guns were disabled. Most of the crew lived
on board, since there were no housing facilities available. During the
several years the Germans were detainees, they outnumbered U.S. Marines
in Guam. Relations were cordial, and a U.S. Navy nurse married one of
the Cormoran's officers.
As a result of U-boat attacks on U.S. shipping to Britain, the U.S.
broke off diplomatic relations with Germany on February 4, 1917. U.S.
officials in Guam then imposed greater restrictions on the German
detainees. Those who had moved to quarters on land returned to the ship.
Following the U.S. declaration of war on Germany in April 1917, the
Americans demanded "the immediate and unconditional surrender of the
ship and personnel." The German captain and his crew blew up the ship,
taking several German lives. Six whose bodies were found were buried in
the U.S. Naval Cemetery in Apra with full military honors. The surviving
353 German service members became prisoners of war, and on April 29 were
shipped to the U.S. mainland.
Non-German crewmen were treated differently. Four Chinese nationals
started work as personal servants in the homes of wealthy locals.
Another 28, Melanesians from German New Guinea, were confined on Guam
and not accorded the rations and monthly allowance that other POWs
received. The crews of the cruiser Geier and an accompanying supply
ship, which sought refuge from the Japanese Navy in Honolulu in November
1914, were similarly interned, becoming POWs when the US entered the
Several hundred men on two other German cruisers, the Prinz Eitel
Friedrich and Kronprinz Wilhelm, unwilling to face certain destruction
by the British Navy in the Atlantic, lived for several years on their
ships in various Virginia ports and frequently enjoyed shore leave.
Eventually they were given a strip of land in the Norfolk Navy Yard on
which to build accommodations. They constructed a complex commonly known
as the "German village", with painted one-room houses and fenced yards
made from scrap lumber, curtained windows, and gardens of flowers and
vegetables, as well as a village church, a police station, and cafes
serving non-alcoholic beverages. They rescued animals from other ships
and raised goats and pigs in the village, along with numerous pet cats
and dogs. On October 1, 1916, the ships and their personnel were
moved to the Philadelphia Navy Yard along with the village
structures, which again became known locally as the "German
village." In this more secure location in the Navy Yard behind a barbed
wire fence, the detainees designated February 2, 1917 as Red Cross Day
and solicited donations to the German Red Cross. As German-American
relations worsened in the spring of 1917, nine sailors successfully
escaped detention, prompting Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels to
act immediately on plans to transfer the other 750 to detention camps at
Fort McPherson and Fort Oglethorpe in late March 1917, where they
were isolated from civilian detainees. Following the U.S.
declaration of war on Imperial Germany, some of the Cormoran's crew
members were sent to McPherson, while others were held at Fort Douglas,
Utah, for the duration of the war.
World War II
In the 1940 US census, some 1,237,000 persons identified as being of
German birth; 5 million persons had both parents born in Germany; and 6
million persons had at least one parent born in Germany. German
immigrants had not been prohibited from becoming naturalized United
States citizens and many did so. The large number of German Americans of
recent connection to Germany, and their resulting political and
economical influence, have been considered the reason they were spared
large-scale relocation and internment. The West Coast Japanese Americans
numbered about 120,000 and were expelled from the coast and incarcerated
for years in camps.
Shortly after the Japanese strike on Pearl Harbor, some 1,260 German
nationals were detained and arrested, as the government had been
watching them. Of the 254 persons not of Japanese ancestry evicted
from coastal areas, the majority were ethnic German. During WWII,
German nationals and German Americans in the US were detained and/or
evicted from coastal areas on an individual basis. Although the War
Department (now the Department of Defense) considered mass expulsion of
ethnic Germans and ethnic Italians from the East or West coast areas for
reasons of military security, it did not follow through with this. The
numbers of people involved would have been overwhelming to manage.
A total of 11,507 people of German ancestry were interned during the
war. They comprised 36.1% of the total internments under the US Justice
Department's Enemy Alien Control Program. Of the 254 enemy aliens
evicted from coastal areas (excluding Japanese Americans), the majority
By the outbreak of World War II, the Nazi party's foreign countries
organization (NSDAP/AO) sought to organize German citizens abroad, and
managed to enroll between 3% and 9% of the German nationals in the
Americas. Though it was disappointed by this low participation, by
promoting public activities of uniformed members, the NSDAP/AO gained a
perception of being more influential than it was in fact. Inaccurate
and fearful United States media reports contributed to a public
perception of high feeling for the Nazis among German nationals in the
By contrast, an estimated 110,000-120,000 Japanese-Americans were
forcibly relocated from the West Coast and incarcerated in internment
camps in the interior run by an agency of the Department of Defense.
Some Japanese Americans were investigated and later detained in DOJ
camps under its Enemy Alien program.
Deportation of Germans from Latin America
In addition, the US accepted more than 4,500 German nationals deported
from Latin America, detaining them in DOJ camps. During the early years
of the war, the Federal Bureau of Investigation had drafted a list of
Germans in fifteen Latin American countries whom it suspected of
subversive activities. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
the US demanded deportation of these suspects for detention on US
soil. The countries that responded expelled 4,058 people. Some
10% to 15% were Nazi party members, including approximately a dozen who
were recruiters for the NSDAP/AO, which acted as the overseas arm of the
Nazi party. Just eight were people suspected of espionage.
Also transferred were some 81 unfortunate Jewish Germans who had fled
persecution in Nazi Germany and found refuge in Latin America. Many
of the Germans had been immigrants and residents of Latin America for
years, some for decades.
In some instances, corrupt Latin American officials took the opportunity
to seize the property of Germans. Sometimes financial rewards paid by
American intelligence led to a person's identification as German and
expulsion. Several countries did not participate in the program,
namely, Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico.
The following nations set up their own detention facilities for enemy
Dominican Republic, Mexico, Nicaragua and Venezuela, as well as in the
Panama Canal Zone.
The U.S. internment camps that held Germans from Latin America
Some internees were held as late as 1948.
Studies and review
Since the late 20th century, detainees from the DOJ camps began to work
to gain recognition of their trials. US citizens of ethnic European
groups (German and Italian) which had been considered enemy aliens
during the war, and some of those aliens argued that their civil rights
had been violated and asked for reparations.
In 2005, activists formed an organization called the German American
Internee Coalition to publicize the "internment, repatriation and
exchange of civilians of German ethnicity" during World War II. It is
seeking U.S. government review and acknowledgment of civil rights
The TRACES Center for History and Culture, based in St. Paul, Minnesota,
travels the United States in a "bus-eum" to educate citizens about
treatment of foreign nationals in the U.S. during World War II.
Legislation was introduced in the United States Congress in 2001 to
create an independent commission to review government policies on
European enemy ethnic groups during the war. On August 3, 2001, Senators
Russell Feingold (D-WI) and Charles Grassley (R-IA) sponsored the
European Americans and Refugees Wartime Treatment Study Act in the U.S.
Senate, joined by Senator Ted Kennedy (D-MA) and Senator Joseph
Lieberman. This bill created an independent commission to review U.S.
government policies directed against German and Italian aliens during
World War II in the U.S. and Latin America.
In 2007, the U.S. Senate passed the Wartime Treatment Study Act, which
would examine the treatment of ethnic groups targeted by the U.S.
government during World War II. Alabama Senator Jeff Sessions opposed
it, citing historians from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum who called
it an exaggerated response to treatment of enemy aliens. In 2009,
the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees,
Border Security, and International Law passed the Wartime Treatment
Study Act by a vote of 9 to 1, but it was not voted on by the full
house and did not become law.
The internment of Italian Americans refers to the government's
internment of Italian nationals in the United States during World War
II, similar to that of the Internment of Japanese Americans and
Internment of German Americans. As was customary after Italy and the US
were at war, they were classified as "enemy aliens" and some were
detained by the Department of Justice under the Alien and Sedition Act.
But in practice, the US applied detention only to Italian nationals, not
to US citizens, or long-term US residents. Italian immigrants had
been allowed to gain citizenship through the naturalization process
during the years before the war, and by 1940 there were millions of US
citizens who had been born in Italy. Ethnic Italians were the largest
group in the United States among nationals and ethnic descendants of the
three peoples represented by the three Axis powers.
In 1942 there were 695,000 Italian immigrants in the United States. Some
1881 were taken into custody and detained under wartime restrictions;
these were applied most often by the War Relocation Authority to
diplomats, businessmen, and Italian nationals who were students in the
US, especially to exclude them from sensitive coastal areas. In
addition, merchant seamen trapped in US ports by the outbreak of war
were detained. Italian labor leaders lobbied for recognition as loyal
(and not enemy aliens) those Italian Americans who had initiated
naturalization before the war broke out; they objected to blanket
classification of Italian nationals as subversives.
In 2001 the US Attorney General reported to Congress on a review of
treatment by the Department of Justice of Italian Americans during World
War II. In 2010, the California Legislature passed a resolution
apologizing for US mistreatment of Italian residents during the war.
The term "Italian American" does not have a legal definition. It is
generally understood to mean ethnic Italians of American nationality,
whether Italian-born immigrants to the United States (naturalized or
unnaturalized) or American-born people of Italian descent (natural-born
The term "enemy alien" has a legal definition. The relevant federal
statutes in Chapter 3 of Title 50 of the United States Code, for example
par. 21, which applies only to persons 14 years of age or older who
are within the United States and not naturalized. Under this provision,
which was first defined and enacted in 1798 (in the Alien Enemies Act,
one of the four Alien and Sedition Acts) and amended in 1918 (in the
Sedition Act of 1918) to apply to females as well as to males, all
"...natives, citizens, denizens or subjects..." of any foreign nation or
government with which the United States is at war "...are liable to be
apprehended, restrained, secured and removed as alien enemies...."
At the outbreak of World War II, for example, all persons born in Italy
living in the United States, whether US citizens, lawful full-time or
part-time residents, or as members of the diplomatic and business
community, were considered by law "enemy aliens." However, applying the
standard to all persons including US Citizens became problematic given
the huge numbers of Italian immigrants and the even larger numbers of
their descendants. Accordingly, the government most often applied the
term to Italian-born persons who were not United States citizens, but
especially to Italian diplomats, Italian businessmen, and Italian
international students studying in the United States; all were
classified as "enemy aliens" when Italy declared war on the United
States. In some cases, such temporary residents were expelled (such as
diplomats) or given a chance to leave the country when war was declared.
Some were interned, as were the Italian merchant seamen caught in U.S.
ports when their ships were impounded when war broke out in Europe in 1939.
The members of the ethnic Italian community in the United States
presented an unusual problem. Defined in terms of national origin, it
was the largest ethnic community in the United States, having been
supplied by a steady flow of immigrants from Italy between the 1880s and
1930. By 1940, there were in the United States millions of native-born
Italians who had become American citizens. There were also a great many
Italian "enemy aliens", more than 600,000, according to most sources,
who had immigrated during the previous decades and had not become
naturalized citizens of the United States.
The laws regarding "enemy aliens" did not make ideological
distinctions?treating as legally the same pro-Fascist Italian
businessmen living for a short time in the U.S. and trapped there when
war broke out, anti-Fascist refugees from Italy who arrived a few years
earlier intending to become U.S. citizens but who had not completed the
process of naturalization, and those who had emigrated from Italy at the
turn of the 20th century and raised entire families of native-born
Italian Americans but who had not become naturalized. Under the law they
were all classified as enemy aliens.
Before United States entry into World War II
In September 1939, Britain and France declared war against Nazi Germany
after Adolf Hitler invaded Poland. In a show of support for Britain and
France, President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the Director of the
Federal Bureau of Investigation, J. Edgar Hoover, to compile a Custodial
Detention Index of those to be arrested in case of national emergency.
The Axis powers allied with Germany included Fascist Italy and the
Japanese Empire. More than a year before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the
Department of Justice began to list possible saboteurs and enemy agents
among the German, Japanese, and Italian populations.
In 1940, resident aliens were required to register under the Smith Act.
War relocation centers
A distinction must be made between:
Italian Americans designated "enemy aliens" (non-U.S. citizens) as
defined by Title 50 of the United States Code
Italian Americans who were evacuated and interned under the War
Relocation Authority. This authority was based on Executive Order 9066
(issued February 19, 1942) and Executive Order 9102 (issued March 18,
1942). These orders authorized the "removal from designated areas of
persons whose removal is necessary in the interests of national
security." That authority did not distinguish between native-born
Americans and citizens of other nations living in the United States; the
orders simply said "persons." This was the same basis upon which
Japanese Americans were interned, an effort much larger in scale than
Italian American internment. Both foreign-born and native-born Japanese
Americans and both citizens and non-citizens were interned, though
nearly two thirds were native-born U.S. citizens. Italian
Americans interned under the War Relocation Authority were not arrested
under the Enemy Alien Act, but were simply "persons" removed under the
War Relocation Authority.
Di Stasi cites a number of such cases of mistreatment and internment
of "Italian Americans", although he apparently defines "Italian
American" as anyone within the Italian community, whether native-born
U.S. citizens or Italian-born non-U.S. citizens.
1941 to 1943
Chronology of events regarding the treatment of enemy aliens and the
reaction in the Italian community.
On December 11, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the
United States. The United States reciprocated and entered World War II.
Beginning on the very night of the December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor and before the US officially declared war against Italy,
the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested a handful of Italians.
By December 10, 1941, nearly all the Italians, about 147 men, that FBI
Director J. Edgar Hoover planned on arresting before the official
declaration were in custody. By June 1942, the FBI had arrested a
total of 1,521 Italian aliens. About 250 individuals were interned
for up to two years in the WRA military camps in Montana, Oklahoma,
Tennessee, and Texas, in some cases co-located with interned Japanese
Americans. The government targeted Italian journalists, language
teachers and men active in an Italian veterans group.
In late December 1941, enemy aliens throughout the United States, Puerto
Rico and the Virgin Islands were required to surrender hand cameras,
short-wave radio receiving sets and radio transmitters not later than 11
p.m. on the following Monday. They were subject to curfew and
movement restrictions, and later were forced to move out of certain
areas. These restrictions were enforced more in the San Francisco area
than in Los Angeles, and much more on the West Coast than on the East
Coast, where Italians were residents in much greater number and made up
a much higher percentage of the population, especially in major urban
In January 1942, all enemy aliens were required to register at local
post offices. As enemy aliens they were required to be fingerprinted,
photographed, and carry their photo-bearing "enemy alien registration
cards" at all times. Attorney General Francis Biddle assured enemy
aliens that they would not be discriminated against if they were loyal.
He cited Department of Justice figures: of the 1,100,000 enemy aliens in
the United States, 92,000 were Japanese, 315,000 were German, and
695,000 were Italian. In all, 2,972 had been arrested and held, mostly
Japanese and Germans. Only 231 Italians had been arrested.
On January 11, 1942 the New York Times reported that "Representatives of
200,000 Italian-American trade unionists appealed to President Roosevelt
yesterday to 'remove the intolerable stigma of being branded as enemy
aliens' from Italian and German nationals who had formally declared
their intentions of becoming American citizens by taking out first
papers before America's entry into the war."
A few weeks later, the same newspaper reported that "Thousands of enemy
aliens living in areas adjacent to shipyards, docks, power plants and
defense factories prepared today to find new homes as Attorney General
Biddle added sixty-nine more districts in California to the earlier list
of West Coast sections barred to Japanese, Italian and German nationals.
These were areas defined as within the Exclusion Zone. Japanese
Americans were much more affected by this ruling than were German
Americans and Italian Americans. The WRA established about a 50-mile
wide Exclusion Zone on the West Coast that adversely affected Italian
Americans who had been working as longshoremen and fishermen, causing
many to lose their livelihoods. Those in California were most severely
affected. Perhaps because the Italians were more numerous and
politically strong on the East Coast, there was never such an Exclusion
Zone delineated. Italian Americans in the East did not suffer the same
On Sat, 29 Jul 2017 11:15:31 -0600, tyre biter wrote:
A key difference is that German NATIONALS were subject to interment
but American CITIZENS of German decent were not really bothered with.
My father was German, the third generation from the original immigrant
and was heavily involved in production of critical war time materials.
However, American citizens that were third and fourth generation
descendents of Japanese immigrants WERE rounded up and kept for years.
The workers at the M-1 Garand plant in St Paul were nearly all of German
extraction. As were the workers at the Half -track assy plant. Many of
the Marines that Island hopped in the Pacific were of German extraction
It is hardly too strong to say that the Constitution was made to guard
the people against the dangers of good intentions. There are men in all
It wasn't specifically against Germans but with the Montana sedition law
having an opinion while German was dangerous. Wilson liked the law so
well it was adopted by the US almost verbatim.
Where I grew up was heavily German and there was an attempt to rename
things. It confused by as a kid because there was a concrete bridge
abutment that labeled Snyder's Lake as Aries Lake. Of course, nobody
every called it Aries Lake. The town of Berlin was a little more
difficult although the local pronunciation was BURL-in. The Liberty
Cabbage thing didn't stick and salisbury steak instead of hamburger
faded away. Hot dog for a frankfurter probably preceded the war.
During WWII the family German Shepherd became a Police Dog for the
My father was a Fleet Marine on the Oklahoma when it escorted Wilson to
France to be fleeced by the French and Brits. Neither he nor my uncle
mentioned any problems.
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