Just guessing, again, but this sounds like the pressure is not bleeding off, for whatever reason. It's hard to imagine seals that would hold pressure for hours, but I suppose it's possible. Or, maybe there's some contamination somewhere - water, perhaps, that's freezing in a low spot in a line?
Wait a minute - I just reread your post - Am I right that it does restart if you let it sit a couple of hours? What if you let it sit a few (maybe 5) minutes? Wait till the compressor is running, then unplug it after a couple of minutes. Then wait five minutes and plug it back in. Does it restart then? If so, there's something wrong with the control circuitry. It should not, under normal circumstances, be trying to start against a load. There should be enough hysterisis in the thermostat, or some sort of lock-out timer to prevent rapid cycling.
Do you maybe have an air leak - lik in the door gasket? I could see how that would cause rapid cycling.
You're already wasted more time and money that a housecall and diagnosis would have cost. You can't quit now. Replace the compressor. Then the evaporator. Then rip out all the plumbing and replace that too. Replace the control unit too while you're at it. Don't forget to replace the outlet, inside house wiring, and the utility power pole.
I mentioned a month ago the dumbfuck probably had ice build up inside the cap tube or possibly if equipped the TEV. You might ask where the moisture comes from in a sealed system. Not knowing the service history of this unit I could not tell you if it actually has ice build up or if the system had been worked on prior to dumbfuck purchasing it used. But it sure displays the proper symptoms to be a distinct possibility.
'Scuse me, but Igor is hardly a "dumbfuck." He can afford to pay professionals, but likes to do things himself, and isn't embarassed about asking for help. There's a lot to be learned from his approach to these things.
Friday in Illinois the tax rebate is on again for one day, and I think Best Buy is giving another 15% off, thats 30% off, you would be a fool not to get a new frige, or get a repairman and fix that dying horse.
Well, this thermistor capacitor start scheme sounds pretty crummy to me. If the power gets a short glitch, even a couple cycles of the line, that may allow the compressor to nearly stop when there is high pressure in the condenser side. Then, power comes back and the thermistor is hot, so it doesn't restart. There is a thing called a "sinpac" switch, currently manufactured by Stearns. It uses a voltage sensing chip and a triac to control the start winding. It is made as a replacement for shot centrifugal switches, but is also great on motors where such a switch can't be used, like refrigerator compressors. At least through the channels I got one a while ago, they are expensive, but I'll bet a refrigeration shop will carry them much cheaper.
There are also electronic modules, often used in the heating/cooling trade, to prevent "short-cycling". They are just wired in series with a motor, and will shut it off for some number of minutes whenever there is a power interruption.
Of course, you may just have a defective compressor, and it is slowly seizing up, and will eventually lock up for good.
I converted a central air conditioning system from capillary tube to expansion valve some years ago, and had problems with the compressor failing to start. I installed a "hard start kit" from my friendly local A/C supply shop. This was a potential relay and a BIG starting cap. It augments the run cap when starting, and greatly increases starting torque. It solved the problem. I don't know if this is the kind of problem this unit is having, and you might have to instrument it to find out what the cause is. It could be a bad compressor, it could be a bad starting system design, it could be a program problem in the computerized controller that is occasionally trying to stop and restart the compressor too quickly, it could be a mechanical timer on the defrost that has that same effect, or it could even be low line voltage or a worn-out wall socket making poor contact.
The friendly local A/C supplier isn't so friendly anymore, I have to show them my EPA "green card" to get them to sell anything to me. The trade prices on stuff just blows me away. I needed a run cap for our current A/C unit a couple years ago, showed them my green card, and got a HUGE run cap for about $7.50. I walked in there expecting to pay $50 for it.
My life experience (62 years so far) is that when refrigerators start acting up, unless it's a fix that costs less than $50, it is cheaper to dump it and get another. In today's market, nice fridges are cheap. About as much as a compressor job, and the compressor repair man has a warranty that is good until he's out of sight.
Heart surgery pending? Read up and prepare. Learn how to care for a friend.
Your motor has lack of lubrication and is seizing up. Since it's in a sealed can you can't fix it. Putting lubrication in the coolant could help but you can't do that either without unsoldering connections and capturing the coolant and could cost more to fix than to throw out and buy a new one.